Vol. 43 (6): 1021-1032, November – December, 2017
Benjamin A. Sherer 1, Krishnan Warrior 1, Karl Godlewski 1, Martin Hertl 2, Oyedolamu Olaitan 2, Ajay Nehra 1, Leslie Allan Deane 1
1 Department of Urology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States; 2 Department of Surgery, Abdominal Transplant, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States
As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs) being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR’s is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immunosuppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, familial [Supplementary Concept]; Kidney Transplantation; Prostatectomy; Radiotherapy; Prostate-Specific Antigen