Vol. 46 (x): 2020 April 4.[Ahead of print]
Cooper R. Benson 1, Gen Li. 2, Steven B. Brandes 1
1 Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2 Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
Objective: The objective is to summarize and characterize the long-term success of anterior augmentation urethroplasty (AU) in published series. The current literature on AU consists largely of retrospective series reporting intermediate follow-up and incompletely characterize the long term outcomes of AU.
Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was performed consistent with PRISMA guidelines to characterize long-term outcomes of AU with a minimum upper limit follow-up of 100 months. Penile/preputial skin flaps and graft and oral mucosal graft urethroplasties were included. The primary outcome was stricture-free survival for one-stage AU. Secondary analysis evaluated differences in outcomes based on two failure definitions: the need for intervention versus presence of recurrent stricture on cystoscopy or urethrography. Hazard rates were induced from the reported failure rates of one-stage AU and fixed and random effect models were fitted to the data. Additional subset analysis, removing potential confounders (lichen sclerosus, hypospadias and penile skin graft), was performed.
Results: Ten studies met inclusion criteria, and two studies reported separate outcomes for grafts and flaps, and thus were included separately in the analysis. The mean hazard rate across all studies was 0.0044, the corresponding survival rates at 1 year 0.948, 5 years 0.766, 10 years 0.587, and 15 years 0.45. Subset analysis of the 4 select and homogeneous studies noted 1, 5, 10, and 15 years survival rates of 0.97, 0.96, 0.74, and 0.63, respectively.
Conclusions: The long-term success rates of augmentation urethroplasty are appear to be worse than previously appreciated and patients should be counseled accordingly.
Keywords: Urethral Stricture; Systematic Review [Publication Type]; Cystoscopy