Vol. 46 (3): 383-389, May – June, 2020
Carla S. M. de Freitas 1, Aleida N. Soares 2
1 Hospital do Câncer de Muriaé, MG, Brasil; 2 Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of therapy for ad-vanced prostate cancer. Studies addressing the efficacy of different depot formulations of long acting luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists in the Brazilian population are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy of three schedules of leuprolide acetate in lowering PSA in a real world population.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with prostate cancer seen at our institution between January 2007 and July 2018. We analyzed patients treated with long-acting leuprolide acetate and grouped these patients into three strata according to the administration of ADT every 1, 3 or 6 months. The primary outcome was the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels at 6 and 12 months after treatment initiation. We used Friedman test to compare the distribution of PSA levels at baseline and at 6 and 12 months within each treatment stratum. We considered two-sided P values <0.05 as statistically signifi cant. We analyzed toxicity descriptively.
Results: We analyzed a total of 932 patients, with a median age of 72 years and a median time since diagnosis of prostate cancer of 8.5 months. ADT was administered monthly in 115 patients, quarterly in 637, and semiannually in 180. Nearly half of the patients had locally advanced disease. In comparison with baseline, median serum PSA levels were reduced at 12 months by at least 99.7% in the three strata (P<0.001 in all cases). Sexual impotence and hot fl ashes were the most frequently reported toxicities.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the largest assessment of real-world data on alternative schedules of leuprolide in a Brazilian population. Our study suggests that PSA levels can be effectively be reduced in most patients treated with monthly, quarterly, or semiannual injections of long-acting leuprolide acetate.
Keywords: Prostatic Neoplasms; agonists [Subheading]; Prostate-Specific Antigen