Vol. 45 (4): 713-723, July – August, 2019
Antonio C. Westphalen 1, 2, 3, Farhad Fazel 1, Hao Nguyen 2, 3, Miguel Cabarrus 1, Katryana Hanley- Knutson 1, Katsuto Shinohara 2, 3, Peter R. Carroll 2, 3
1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2 Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3 Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Purpose: To determine if PSAD, PSADtz, and ADC values improve the accuracy of PI-RADS v2 and identify men whose concurrent systematic biopsy detects clinically signifi cant cancer on areas without mpMRI visible lesions.
Materials and methods: Single reference-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of consecutive men with suspected or known low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent 3T mpMRI and TRUS-MRI fusion biopsy from 07/15/2014 to 02/17/2018. Cluster-corrected logistic regression analyses were utilized to predict clinically signifi cant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥3+4) at targeted mpMRI lesions and on systematic biopsy.
Results: 538 men (median age=66 years, median PSA=7.0ng/mL) with 780mpMRI lesions were included. Clinically signifi cant disease was diagnosed in 371 men. PI-RADS v2 scores of 3, 4, and 5 were clinically signifi cant cancer in 8.0% (16/201), 22.8% (90/395), and 59.2% (109/184). ADC values, PSAD, and PI-RADS v2 scores were independent predictors of clinically signifi cant cancer in targeted lesions (OR 2.25-8.78; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.84, 95% CI 0.81-0.87). Increases in PSAD were also associated with upgrade on systematic biopsy (OR 2.39-2.48; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.73).
Conclusions: ADC values and PSAD improve characterization of PI-RADS v2 score 4 or 5 lesions. Upgraded on systematic biopsy is slightly more likely with PSAD ≥0.15 and multiple small PI-RADS v2 score 3 or 4 lesions.
Keywords: Radiology; Prostate; Magnetic Resonance Imaging