Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology  |  SBU

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Luciano A. Favorito, MD, PhD
Unidade de Pesquisa Urogenital, Univ. do Est. do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ,
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

EMERITUS EDITOR

Francisco J. B. Sampaio, MD, PhD
Unidade de Pesquisa Urogenital, Univ. do Est. do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Sidney Glina, MD, PhD
Disciplina de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP. Brasil

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Robotics

Anuar I. Mitre
Faculdade  de Medicina da USP
São Paulo, SP Brasil

Female Urology 

Cássio Riccetto
Univ. de Est. de Campinas – UNICAMP
Campinas, SP, Brasil

Endourology and Lithiasis

Fábio C. M. Torricelli
Hosp. de Clínicas Univ. São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

General Urology

José de Bessa Jr.
Univ. Est. de Feira de Santana
Feira de Santana, BA, Brasil

Infertility

Sandro Esteves
ANDROFERT,
Clínica de Andrologia e Reprodução Humana
Campinas, SP, Brasil

Male Health

Valter Javaroni
Hosp. Fed. do Andaraí
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Uro-Oncology

Leonardo O. Reis
Univ. de Est. de Campinas – UNICAMP
Campinas, SP, Brasil

Rodolfo Borges do Reis
Fac. Med. Univ.  SP Rib. Preto
Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

Stênio de C. Zequi
A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Fundação Prudente
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

BPH and Neurourology

Cristiano Mendes Gomes
Hosp. de Clínicas Univ.  São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

PEDIATRIC UROLOGY

José Murillo Bastos Netto
Univ. Federal de Juiz de Fora – UFJF
Juiz de Fora, MG, Brasil

RADIOLOGY SECTION

Ronaldo H. Baroni
Hosp. Albert Einstein
São Paulo, Brasil

VIDEO SECTION

Philippe E. Spiess
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer, Center
Tampa, FL, USA

UPDATE IN UROLOGY

Alexandre Danilovic
Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Eliney Ferreira Faria
Hospital do Cancer de Barretos
Barretos, SP, Brasil

Felipe Lott
Instituto Nacional do Câncer – INCA
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Fernando Maluf
Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Gustavo Cardoso Guimarães
A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Fundação Prudente
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

João Paulo Martins Carvalho
Hospital Federal Cardoso Fontes
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Márcio Augusto Averbeck
Hospital Moinhos de Vento
Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Rodrigo Barros de Castro
Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF
Niterói, RJ, Brasil

Rodrigo Ribeiro Vieiralves
Hospital Federal da Lagoa
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

CONSULTING EDITORS

A. Lopez-Beltran
Universidad de Córdoba Sch Med
Cordoba, España

A. J. Stephenson
Cleveland Clinic´s Glickman Urol.
Cleveland, OH, USA

Aderivaldo Cabral Dias Filho
Hosp. de Base do Dist. Fed. de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brasil

Adilson Prando
Vera Cruz Hospital Campinas
Campinas, SP, Brasil

Ahmed I. El-Sakka
Suez Canal University Sch Med.
Ismailia, Egypt

Alan M. Nieder
Columbia University Miami Beach
FL, USA

Alexandre L. Furtado
Universidade de Coimbra e Hospital Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Allen F. Morey
University. Texas SW Med. Ctr.
Dallas, TX, USA

Andre G. Cavalcanti
Univ. Fed. do Est. do Rio de Janeiro – Unirio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Andreas Bohle
Helios Agnes Karll Hospital Bad
Schwartau, Germany

Andrew J. Stephenson
Cleveland Clinic’s Glickman Urological, OH, USA

Ari Adamy Jr.
Hospital Santa Casa de Curitiba
Curitiba, PR, Brasil

Arie Carneiro
Hospital Albert Einstein
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Anthony J. Schaeffer
Northwestern University Chicago
IL, USA

Antonio C. L. Pompeo
Faculdade de Medicina do ABC
Santo André, SP, Brasil

Antonio C. Westphalen
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

Antonio Corrêa Lopes Neto
Faculdade de Medicina do ABC
Santo André, SP, Brasil

Antonio Macedo Jr.
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Arthur T. Rosenfield
Yale University Sch Medicine New Haven, CT, USA

Ashok Agarwal
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Athanase Billis
Universidade Estadual de Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brasil

Athanasios Papatsoris
University of Athens, Sismanoglio Hospital Athens, Greece

Barry A. Kogan
Albany Medical College Albany
NY, USA

Bianca Martins Gregorio
Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro – Uerj, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Boris Chertin
Shaare Zedek Med Ctr.
Jerusalem, Israel

Bruno Marroig
Instituto D´or de Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Carlos Arturo Levi D’ancona
Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil

Daniel G. DaJusta
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI, USA

Daniel Hampl
Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Diogo Benchimol De Souza
Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro – Uerj, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Donna M. Peehl
Stanford University Sch. Med. Stanford, CA, USA,

Eduardo Bertero
Hosp. do Servidor Público Estadual
de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Erik Busby
University of Alabama Birmingham
AL, USA

Ernani L. Rhoden
Hospital Moinhos de Vento
Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Eugene Minevich
University of Cincinnati Med. Ctr. Cincinnati, OH, USA

Evangelos N. Liatsikos
University of Patras Patras
Greece

Faruk Hadziselimovic
University of Basel, Liestal
Switzerland

Ferdinand Frauscher
Medical University Innsbruck Innsbruck, Austria

Fernando G. Almeida
Univ. Fed. de São Paulo – UNIFESP
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Fernando Korkes
Faculdade de Medicina do ABC
Santo André, SP, Brasil

Flavio Trigo Rocha
Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Francisco T. Denes
Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Franklin C. Lowe
Columbia University New York
NY, USA

Glenn M. Preminger
Duke University Medical Ctr. Durham
NC, USA

Guido Barbagli
Ctr. Uretrale e Genitali Chirurgia
Arezzo, Italia

Gustavo F. Carvalhal
Pontifícia Universidade Católica – PUC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Hann-Chorng Kuo
Buddhist Tzu Chi Sch Med.
Hualien, Taiwan

Herney A. Garcia-Perdomo
Universidad del Valle
Cali, CO

Homero Bruschini
Fac. de Med. da Univ. de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Hubert Swana
Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children Urology Center, FL, USA

Humberto Villavicencio
Fundació Puigvert
Barcelona, Espanha

J. L. Pippi Salle
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada

John C. Thomas
Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital. at Vanderbilt, TN, USA

Jae-Seung Paick
Seoul National University Hospital
Seoul, Korea

Jeffrey A. Cadeddu
University of Texas Southwestern
Dallas, TX, USA

Jeffrey P. Weiss
SUNY, Downstate Medical School Brooklyn, New York, USA

Jens Rassweiler
University of Heidelberg Heilbronn, Germany

John Denstedt
University of Western Ontario London
ON, Canada

Jonathan I. Epstein
The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

Jorge Gutierrez-Aceves
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
NC, USA

Jorge Hallak
Fac. de Med. Univ. de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

José Carlos Truzzi
Universidade de Santo Amaro
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Jose J. Correa
Ces University Medellin
Medelin, CO

Joseph L. Chin
University of Western Ontario London
ON, Canada

Julio Pow-Sang
Moffitt Cancer Center Tampa
FL, USA

Karim Kader
Wake Forest University Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Karl-Dietrich Sievert
University of Tuebingen
Tuebingen, Germany

Karthik Tanneru
University of Florida
Jacksonville, USA

Katia R. M. Leite
Universidade de São Paulo, USP
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Laurence Baskin
University California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA, USA

Leandro Koifman
Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Leonardo Abreu
Universidade Estácio de Sá
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Liang Cheng
Indiana University Sch. Medicine Indianapolis, IN, USA

Lisias N. Castilho
Fac. de Med. Univ. de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Lisieux Eyer de Jesus
Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro
Niterói, RJ, Brasil

Luca Incrocci
Erasmus Mc-Daniel Cancer Ctr. Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Lucas Nogueira
Univ. Fed. de Minas Gerais – UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

Luis H. Braga
McMaster University Hamilton
Ontario, CA

M. Chad Wallis
University of Utah Salt Lake City
Utah, USA

M. Manoharan
University of Miami Sch. Med. Miami
FL, USA

Marcelo Wroclawski
Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Marco Arap
Hospital Sírio Libanês,
São Paulo, Brasil

Marcos Tobias-Machado
Faculdade de Medicina do ABC
Santo André, SP, Brasil

Marcos Giannetti Machado
Hospital das Clínicas da USP
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Marcello Cocuzza
Fac. de Med. Univ. de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Márcio Josbete Prado
Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Salvador, BA, Brasil

Marcos F. Dall’Oglio
Universidade de São Paulo – USP
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Margaret S. Pearle
University of Texas Southwestern
Dallas, TX, USA

Matthew C. Biagioli
Moffitt Cancer Center Tampa
FL, USA

Mauricio Rubinstein
Univ. Fed. do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Michael B. Chancellor
William Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak, MI, USA

Miguel Zerati Filho
Inst. of Urologia e Nefrologia S. J. do Rio Preto, SJRP, SP, Brasil

Monish Aron
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Los Angeles, CA, USA

Monthira Tanthanuch
Prince of Songkla University
Haad Yai, Thailand

Paulo Palma
Univ. Est. de Campinas – UNICAMP
Campinas, SP, Brasil

Paulo R. Monti
Univ. Federal do Triângulo Mineiro
Uberaba, MG, Brasil

Paulo Rodrigues
Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Rafael Carrion
Univ. of South Florida Tampa
FL. USA

Ralf Anding
University Hospital Friederich Wilhelms, University Bonn, Germany

Ralph V. Clayman
Univ. California Irvine Med. Ctr.
Orange, CA, USA

Ricardo Autorino
University Hospitals Urology Institute
OH, USA

Ricardo Bertolla
Univ. Fed. São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Ricardo Miyaoka
Univ. Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil

Ricardo Reges
Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFCE, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil

Rodolfo Borges dos Reis
Fac. de Med. da Univ. de São Paulo
Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

Rodrigo Krebs
Univ. Federal do Paraná – UFPR
Curitiba, PR, Brasil

Rodolfo Montironi
Università Politecnica delle Marche
Region Ancona, Italy

Roger R. Dmochowski
Vanderbilt University Sch. Med.
Nashville, TN, USA

Sean P. Elliott
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN, USA

Simon Horenblas
Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Stephen Y. Nakada
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI, USA

Tariq Hakki
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL, USA

Tiago E. Rosito
Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen
Aarhus University Hospital
Aarhus, Denmark

Ubirajara Barroso Jr.
Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA, Brasil

Ubirajara Ferreira
Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil

Victor Srougi
Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Vipu R. Patel
University of Central Florida
Orlando, FL, USA

Vincent Delmas
Université René Descartes
Paris, France

Wade J. Sexton
Moffitt Cancer Center
Tampa, FL, USA

Waldemar S. Costa
Univ. Est. do Rio de Janeiro – Uerj
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Walter Henriques da Costa
Hospital da Santa Casa de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Wassim Kassouf
McGill University
Montreal, Canada

Wilfrido Castaneda
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN, USA

William Nahas
Fac. de Med. da Univ. de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Wojtek Rowinski
Univ of Warmia and Mazury Olsztyn
Poland

Wolfgang Weidner
Justus-Liebig Univ Giessen
Giessen, Germany

FORMER EDITORS

Alberto Gentile(Founder)
(1975 – 1980)

Lino L. Lenz
(1981)

Rubem A. Arruda
(1982 – 1983)

Gilberto Menezes de Góes
(1984 – 1985)

Sami Arap
(1986 – 1987)

Nelson Rodrigues Netto Jr.
(1988 – 1993)

Sami Arap
(1994 – 1997)

Sérgio D. Aguinaga
(1998 – 1999)

Francisco J. B. Sampaio
(2000 – 2010)

Miriam Dambros
(2011)

Sidney Glina
(2012 – 2019)

Luciano Alves Favorito
(2020 – )

EDITORIAL PRODUCTION

Ricardo de Morais
TECHNICAL EDITOR

Bruno Nogueira
PRODUCTION EDITOR

Patrícia Gomes
SECRETARY

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Rua Real Grandeza, 108 /101 – 22281-034 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brazil
Telephone: +55 21 2246-4003

E-mail: brazjurol@brazjurol.com.br

The International Braz J Urol, ISSN: 1677-5538 (printed version) and ISSN: 1677-6119 (electronic version) is the Offi cial Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology– SBU, is published 6 times a year (bimonthly, starting in January – February).
Intellectual Property: CC-BY – All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.. Copyright by Brazilian Society of Urology.

The International Braz J Urol is indexed by: EMBASE/Excerpta Medica; SciELO, Lilacs/Latin America Index; Free Medical Journals; MD-Linx; Catálogo Latindex; SCImago, Index Medicus – NLM, PubMed/MEDLINE, PubMed/Central, ISI – Current Contents / Clinical Medicine and Science Citation Index Expanded.

DISCLAIMER

The authored articles and editorial comments, opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations in the International Braz J Urol are solely those of the individual authors and contributors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Journal and the Brazilian Society of Urology. Also, their publication in the International Braz J Urol does not imply any endorsement. The publication of advertisements in the International Braz J Urol, although expecting to conform to ethical standards, is not a warranty, endorsement or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality, or safety. Medicine is a science that constantly and rapidly advances, therefore, independent verification of diagnosis and drug usage should be made. The Journal is not responsible for any injury to persons caused by usage of products, new ideas and dosage of drugs proposed in the manuscripts.