Impact of local treatment on overall survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

Vol. 43 (4): 588-599, July – August, 2017

doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2016.0483


REVIEW ARTICLE

Arie Carneiro 1,2, Willy Baccaglini 2, Felipe P.A. Glina 3, Paulo P. Kayano 1, Victor M. Nunes 4, Oren Smaletz 5, Wanderley Marques Bernardo 4, Icaro Thiago de Carvalho 6, Gustavo Caserta Lemos 1
1 Departamento de Urologia, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, SP, Brasil; 2 Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, SP, Brasil; 3 Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, SP, Brasil; 4 Centro Universitário Lusiada, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Santos, SP, Brasil; 5 Departamento de Oncologia, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brasil; 6 Departamento de Radioterapia, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brasil
ABSTRACT

Context: Currently, standard treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer (MPCa) is androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Recent studies suggested that local treatment of MPCa is related to increase of survival of those patients, as observed in other tumors.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of local treatment on overall survival and cancer specific survival in 3 and 5 years in patients with MPCa.

Materials and Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies published at PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, Cochrane and EMBASE databases until June 2016. Several large cohorts and Post-Roc studies were included, that evaluated patients with MPCa submitted to local treatment (LT) using radiotherapy (RDT), surgery (RP) or brachytherapy (BCT) or not submitted to local treatment (NLT).

Results: 34.338 patients were analyzed in six included papers, 31.653 submitted to NLT and 2.685 to LT. Overall survival in three years was significantly higher in patients submitted to LT versus NLT (64.2% vs. 44.5%; RD 0.19, 95% CI, 0.17-0.21; p<0.00001; I²=0%), as well as in five years (51.9% vs. 23.6%; RD 0.30, 95% CI, 0.11-0.49; p<0.00001; I²=97%). Sensitive analysis according to type of local treatment showed that surgery (78.2% and 45.0%; RD 0.31, 95% CI, 0.26-0.35; p<0.00001; I²=50%) and radiotherapy (60.4% and 44.5%; RD 0.17, 95% CI, 0.12-0.22; p<0.00001; I²=67%) presented better outcomes.

Conclusion: LT using RDT, RP or BCT seems to significantly improve overall survival and cancer-specific survival of patients with metastatic prostatic cancer. Prospective and randomized studies must be performed in order to confirm our results.

Keywords: Prostate; Survival; Radiation Oncology; Prostatic Neoplasms

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