Vol. 42 (4): 734-739, July – August, 2016
Zeynep Gul 1, Kareem Alazem, B. S 2, Ina Li 2, Manoj Monga 2
1 Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States; 2 The Cleveland Clinic, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Purpose: To identify perioperative predictors of immediate pain after ureteroscopy, specifically evaluating the impact of hydrodistention from irrigation on pain.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi. Data recorded for these patients included their maximum pain score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), average flow rate of irrigant used during the procedure, patient and stone characteristics, operative procedure, and details of patients’ immediate, post-operative course. Spearman’s rho was used to determine the relationship between non-parametric, continuous variables. Then, a linear regression was performed to assess which variables could predict the peak pain score.
Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. A non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that maximum pain score was negatively correlated with being male (r = -0.18, p=0.04), age (r = -0.34, p<0.001), and post-op foley placement (r = -0.20, p=0.02) but positively correlated with the preoperative pain score (r = 0.41, p<0.001), time in the PACU (r = 0.19, p = 0.03), and the morphine equivalent dose (MED) of narcotics administered in the PACU (r = 0.67, p<0.001). On linear regression, the significant variables were age, preoperative pain score, and stent placement. For every ten-year increase in age post-operative pain score decreased by 4/10 of a point (p = 0.03). For every 1 point increase in preoperative pain score there was a 3/10 of a point increase in the maximum pain score (p = 0.01), and leaving a stent in place post-operatively was associated with a 1.6 point increase in the maximum pain score.
Conclusions: Hydrodistention does not play a role in post-ureteroscopy pain. Patients who are younger, have higher preoperative pain scores, or who are stented will experience more post-operative pain after ureteroscopy.
Keywords: Pain; Postoperative Period; Ureteroscopy; Ureteral Calculi; Kidney Calculi; Surgical Procedures, Operative