Vol. 42 (6): 1129-1135, November – December, 2016
Diagnostic Ureteroscopy for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma is Independently Associated with Intravesical Recurrence after Radical Nephroureterectomy
Pei Liu 1, Xiao-hong Su 1, Geng-Yan Xiong 1, Xue-Song Li 1, Li-Qun Zhou 1
1 Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China
Purpose: To determine the effect of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU).
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 664 patients who were treated with RNU for UTUC from June 2000 to December 2011, excluding those who had concomitant/prior bladder tumors. Of the 664 patients, 81 underwent diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS). We analyzed the impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence (IVR) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the independent risk factors.
Results: The median follow-up time was 48 months (interquartile range (IQR): 31-77 months). Patients who underwent ureteroscopy were more likely to have a small (p<0.01), early-staged (p=0.019), multifocality (p=0.035) and ureteral tumor (p<0.001). IVR occurred in 223 patients during follow-up within a median of 17 months (IQR: 7-33). Patients without preoperative ureteroscopy have a statistically significant better 2-year (79.3%±0.02 versus 71.4%±0.02, p<0.001) and 5-year intravesical recurrence-free survival rates (64.9%±0.05 versus 44.3%±0.06, p<0.001) than patients who underwent ureteroscopy. In multivariate analysis, the diagnostic ureteroscopy (p=0.006), multiple tumors (p=0.001), tumor size <3cm (p=0.008), low-grade (p=0.022) and pN0 stage tumor (p=0.045) were independent predictors of IVR.
Conclusions: Diagnostic ureteroscopy is independently associated with intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy.
Keywords: Ureteroscopy; Oncology; Bladder; Ureter; Urinary Tract